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04 Apr

Fred, from Brighouse, West Yorkshire, spent a year and £400 building the polymerase chain reaction machine, one component of which was an old video player he found at home.

He got the idea after reading about a similar one built by a man in America.

At the onset of the 20th century, most scientists had accepted the great antiquity of the earth, the theory of evolution and that humanity had evolved from an ape ancestor, but by 1908 the fossil evidence of early man was scarce.

Biologists included principles from genetics in evolutionary theory during the 1920s and 1930s.

Once multicellular organisation became possible as atmospheric oxygen levels rose, the early multicellular organisms rapidly diverged into many adaptive forms.

Mass extinction events and an organism's unique adaptations mark the history of evolution, both of which may lead to adaptive radiation.

Very simply, there are five basic principles to this theory: [1] Variation has a genetic origin (i.e.

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This formed the foundation of the neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory.

[2] Natural selection, gene flow and random genetic drift (the random change in gene combinations with each generation) drive evolution, resulting in a change in gene frequencies within populations .

[3] Adaptation is genetically based and so leads to phenotypic changes that accumulate over time; [4] Speciation (species formation) evolves through reproductive isolation and (genetic) divergence of populations; [5] Genetic changes through natural selection lead to new species and eventually new taxa .

The evolution of a species is linked to the environment.

Adaptation is a continuous response to the environment by changeable species.